Dogwood, Cornus
tree or shrub of the family Cornaceae

Etymology: from Latin word meaning horn, because its wood is hard as horn.
Origin: the Corneliancherry Dogwood, Cornus mas and the blood Dogwood, Cornu sanguinea, are European species, from oriental Mediterranean coast. There are superb American and Asiatic species, used to decorate gardens.
Habitat: half shade or light. Dogwoods appreciate limestones, rather dry. They fear soils rich in organic fertilizations, as well as compact clay soils.
Hardiness: zone 6 (they support cold until -23 °C or -9 °F).
Height: 14 m tall.
Deciduous foliage: Dogwoods are characterised by oval, opposite leaves, of 5-8 cm, with arched lateral veins (visible in the back). The blood Dogwood has leaves which turn to red in winter, because they contain a red sap (anthocyanin), which picks light up better. Flowers are small in February, before the appearance of leaves.

Their fruit (the Cornelian cherries) is ripe in August-September: it is a drupe, only edible those of Dogwood male.

Difference Dogwood
male, Cornus mas
blood, Cornus sanguinea
Dogwood of Japan,
"bear-strawberry", Cornus kousa
Origin Oriental Mediterranean coast Oriental Mediterranean coast Japan
Size 10-15 m shrub of 3-5 m 18 m
Leaves 8 cm 8 cm 12 cm
Colour in autumn   They turn to red
Flowers yellow in umbels *, from February white to yellowish and small, in June encircled with big yellowish, abundant bracts in spring
Fruits red drupe of 2 cm, alone or by two black, of 0,6 cm, grouped, raised on a petiole, red, of appearance of a strawberry.

Uses: the berries of the male dogwood (dogwood cherries) ferment (dogwood cherries wine), can be distilled or cooked in jam. Some oil extracted from the fruit of the blood dogwood, it is possible to make soap.


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